Odissi is one of the pre-eminent classical dance forms of India which originated in the Hindu temples of the eastern coastal state of Odisha in India. Its theoretical base trace back to ‘Natya Shastra’, the ancient Sanskrit Hindu text on the performing arts. The age-old tradition of Odissi is manifested from Odisha Hindu temples and various sites of archaeological significance that are associated with Hinduism, Jainism, and Buddhism, the sculptures of which adorn dance postures of this art form. A form of illustrative anecdote of mythical and religious stories, devotional poems and spiritual ideas emoted by dancer with excellent body movements, expressions, impressive gestures and sign languages, its performance repertoire includes invocation, nrita, nritya, Natya, and moksha. This dance form includes themes from Vaishnavism and others associated with Hindu gods and goddesses like Shiva, Surya, and Shakti.
History & Evolution
The antiquity of this dance form is evident from its roots that trace back to the ancient Sanskrit Hindu text called ‘Natya Shastra’ which deals with different performing arts. All the 108 fundamental dance units elucidated in ‘Natya Shastra’ are similar to this art form. It encompasses thousands of verses that are structured in various chapters. Dance is divided into two specific forms in this text namely ‘nrita’ and ‘nritya’. While ‘nrita’ is pure dance that focuses on perfection of hand movements and gestures, ‘nritya’ is solo expressive dance that stresses the aspects of expressions. Natalia Lidova, a Russian scholar, says that the text enlightens on several theories of Indian classical dances including that of Tandava dance of Lord Shiva, standing postures, basic steps, bhava, rasa, methods of acting and gestures. Reference to four popular styles of vrittis that is methods of expressive presentations namely ‘Odra-Magadhi’, ‘Panchali’, ‘Dakshinatya’ and ‘Avanti’ is found in the text, of which Odra refers to this performing art.
Sites of archaeological and historical significance like caves and temples in Puri, Konarak, and Bhubaneswar bear carvings that are historical manifestations of ancient art forms like music and dance. The heritage site of Udayagiri, the largest Buddhist complex in Odisha, houses the Manchapuri cave belongs to the reign of Kharavela, the Jaina king of Kalinga from the Mahameghavahana dynasty who ruled sometime around the 1st or 2nd century BCE. The cave depicts carvings of musicians and dancers. Reference of music and dance are also found in Udayagiri’s Hathigumpha Inscriptions that were inscribed by Kharavela. The antiquity of Odisha’s musical tradition is also palpable from the account of discovery of a lithophone by the archaeologists that are made of polished basalt with 20 keys. It was unearthed in the archaeological site near Angul, Odisha called Sankarjang that dates back to around 1000 BCE.
Traces of the Performance Art from the Medieval Era
Inscriptions and carvings of dances dating back to the 6th to 9th century CE are found from Odisha’s Hindu, Buddhist, and Jaina archaeological sites, especially from the Assia hill range. Some such sites are temples and caves at Alatgiri, Ratnagiri, and Lalitgiri and the Ranigumpha in Udayagiri. Buddhist icons namely Marichi, Vajravarahi, and Haruka are carved in dancing poses that depict Odissi. Alexandra Carter mentioned that Maharis that is Oriya temple dancers or devadasis and architecturally rich dance halls referred as nata-mandap were quite in fashion by the 9th century CE or maybe prior to it. Kapila Vatsyayan, a prominent art historian and Indian scholar of classical Indian dance art and architecture mentioned that manuscripts of the Jain text titled ‘Kalpa S?tra’ comprising of biographies of Jain Tirthankaras that was unearthed in Gujarat encompass Odissi dance poses like Chuaka and Tribhangi as decorative in its cover and margins. This indicates the popularity of this dance form in the medieval era even in regions of India far away from Odisha.